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By A. R. Disney

The dominion of Portugal was once created as a derivative of the Christian Reconquest of Hispania. with out geographical raison d'être and no noticeable political roots in its Roman, Germanic, or Islamic pasts, it for lengthy remained a small, suffering realm on Europe's outer fringe. Then, within the early 15th century, this not going springboard for Western enlargement without notice started to acquire an empire of its personal, ultimately extending greater than midway all over the world. The historical past of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire, drawing relatively on old scholarship postdating the 1974 Portuguese Revolution, deals readers a accomplished assessment and reinterpretation of ways all this occurred - the 1st such account to seem in English for greater than a iteration. quantity I issues the background of Portugal itself from pre-Roman instances to the climactic French invasion of 1807, and quantity II strains the heritage of the Portuguese abroad empire.

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Extra info for A History of Portugal and the Portuguese Empire: From Beginnings to 1807 (Volume 1)

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This is because of the corrosive nature of iron itself, a problem exacerbated in northern Portugal by acidic soils. Portugal was actually an iron-rich region possessing numerous outcrops of accessible ore, especially in the south – and it was there that an iron industry first developed. By the mid-fifth century BC, a range of iron arms, tools and implements was being produced in various locations scattered throughout the country, though such objects are rarely found today in a wellpreserved condition.

Above all Romanisation meant adopting the traditions and practices of Roman civic life, and urbanisation occurred rapidly in Portugal during the first and early second centuries AD. The names of most important Portuguese towns today, and many smaller places as well, are directly derived from their Roman equivalents or from Latinised forms of pre-Roman names. Some Roman cities in Portugal were new foundations, such as Pax Julia (Beja) and probably Bracara Augusta (Braga). However, most were developed from preexisting oppida, including Olisipo (Lisbon), Ebora (E´vora), Salacia (Alca´cer do Sal), Scallabis (Santare´m), Aeminium (Coimbra), Ossonoba (Faro), Sellium (Tomar) and the twin towns of Portus and Cale (Porto).

It is also possible that some megaliths had cult significance. 7 the metallurgical cultures There was no sudden transformation in Portugal from a Neolithic to an incipient metallurgical culture, but rather a slow, uneven process of adaptation. The soft metals – silver, gold and especially copper – were all known from about 2500 BC. Southern Portugal was one of the first regions in Europe where copper was extracted and then processed into desirable objects. Portugal had been slow to adopt Neolithic technology; but it was quick to enter the Copper Age, a development facilitated by plentiful outcrops of copper ore in the eastern 6 7 Blance B 1961, p 192; Renfrew C 1978, pp 94–101.

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