Download A Primer of GIS: Fundamental Geographic and Cartographic by Francis Harvey PhD PDF

By Francis Harvey PhD

This pragmatic e-book introduces key strategies and talents to arrange scholars to appreciate and use geographic details platforms (GIS). The textual content completely explains what geographic info is, the way it is represented and analyzed, and what it communicates approximately human and environmental actions and occasions that happen on our planet. simple rules of map making and map analyzing are built-in with discussions of correct info applied sciences and functions. Written in an available kind, the textual content is prepared into 4 elements that may be utilized in any series in entry-level and extra really good GIS classes. straightforward good points comprise useful examples and routines, attractive vignettes, and worthwhile web assets.

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Additional resources for A Primer of GIS: Fundamental Geographic and Cartographic Concepts

Example text

To make sure that the observations can be related to one another, special attention to the measurements must be given. First, we need to consider the relationship between water height and river bank elevation. For the entire length of the river, we need to have a defined value that indicates the level of water that leads to a flood. This value isn’t simply zero because the river banks become lower as the river flows away from its higher source to its mouth on the Chicago River. The water height and river banks need to be modeled in a relationship that also remains valid if there are changes along the river bank—for example, building a dike of sandbags.

You can think of the cartographic frameworks as a set of normative and acceptable ways for showing things, events, space, relationships, and associations. Conventions are the actual ways of representing and communicating in maps and geographic information. They both vary as greatly as any fashion. The elements of our cartographic framework and conventions are very profound and important in ensuring that maps and geographic information make sense to people. Obvious examples are the almost universal north orientation of maps and the depiction of water with a shade of blue.

For work with both geographic information and maps, the basic choices remain the same, but it’s fair to say that you will have fewer chances to work directly with observations and measurements. Because of the availability of geographic information, in most cases, people are constrained by the geographic representation. Of course, there is some flexibility, but for the most part options are decisively limited by choices already made for the geographic representation. This limited flexibility and the options that go along with it are discussed in greater detail in the following chapters.

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