By R. Kenedi (Eds.)
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Fifty years in the past Francis Crick and James D. Watson proposed the double helix version for the DNA molecule. They believed they'd, as Crick placed it, came across the “secret of life,” and plenty of agreed. yet within the intervening years, technology has marched—sometimes leaped—forward, and now the query “What is existence?
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With regard to the possibilities and difficulties of differential diagnoses reference must be made to the literature (Edler, 1965; Eifert and Bleifeld, 1965). With the pulse echo technique it is also possible to diagnose pericardial effusions as well as tumours and throm boses in the left auricle (Edler, 1964). Oka et al. (1965) have performed experiments in dogs to obtain acoustic cross-section pictures of the heart and the large vessels. For this a sector scan was used. The probe was introduced into the oeso phagus (focused 5 MHz probe).
He describes a transvesical scanner and an apparatus for recording a sector scan from within the uterus. Gottesfeld (1965) also reports the use of B-scan systems in gynaecology. Without having to use X-ray examinations or radioisotopes he was able to localize the placenta in 96% of cases. In his opinion it is possible by the changes 2* 32 WERNER BUSCHMANN which can be observed in the B-scan echogram to recognize a foetal death after only 4-6 hours and much earlier by ultrasound than by other methods.
The complete crosssection consists, in their technique, of the single movement along an arc path and four sector scan movements. For some of his examinations, however, Baum uses only the sector movements. A tube of normal per sistence is used so that the complete cross-section only becomes visible by means of photographic integration. Other methods for scanning and display of acoustic B-scans of the orbit have been tested by Buschmann (1965, 1966) and by Ossoinig (see section VII). Purnell (1965) used the same equipment as Baum and came to the conclusion that the expen- BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS OF ULTRASOUND 59 diture necessary for the compound scanning method is not justified by the results in the examination of the orbit.