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For optimum brightness, it is best to use two-stage bleaching (oxidative and reductive). If the furnish also contains mechanical fibres, two flotation stages should be provided. $TDSFFO $PBSTFDMFBOFS )$QVMQFS QSFDMFBO 3FKFDU IBOEMJOH 'MPUBUJPO -001** -001* %"' &GGMVFOU Source: Reproduced from Schwarz (2000) with permission from Fapet Oy, Finland Tissues are very low basis weight papers, generally 15–25gsm for toilet and facial tissues. Towelling grades may reach 45gsm. These grades are often creped to enhance bulk, softness and absorbency, and require low final filler content.

2005). Page 49 © Copyright Pira International Ltd 2006 How recycling affects pulp quality 4 Considerable work has been carried out to identify the effects of recycling on pulp properties. Many researchers have examined what might be considered fundamental problems in recycling: how fibres are affected by the recycling processes and how this influences paper properties. Recycling considerably reduces the papermaking potential of fibres. This loss of potential is mainly due to the loss of bonding capacity, which is certainly related to reduced fibre swelling.

Although there have been some improvements in washing technology, advances in flotation deinking have reduced the overall dependence on washing in general and boosted yields. In fact, some mills that still use side hill screens are mainly using them for fibre recovery. Yield is now very important to deinking and recycling plants, driven by the current high cost of recovered papers, and will be even more crucial in the future. Evolved flotation technologies along with today’s improved surfactants and other recycling chemicals have allowed greater ink removal, so plants need to do less washing.

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