By Ken De Bevoise
As waves of epidemic sickness swept the Philippines within the overdue 19th century, a few colonial physicians started to worry that the indigenous inhabitants will be burnt up. Many Filipinos interpreted the contagions as a harbinger of the Biblical Apocalypse. even though the direct forebodings went unfulfilled, Philippine morbidity and mortality charges have been the world's maximum throughout the interval 1883-1903. In brokers of Apocalypse, Ken De Bevoise indicates that these "mourning years" resulted from a conjunction of demographic, monetary, technological, cultural, and political strategies that were construction for hundreds of years. the tale is one in all unintentional outcomes, fraught with tragic irony.De Bevoise makes use of the Philippine case research to discover the level to which people perform growing their epidemics. analyzing the archival checklist with conceptual information from the healthiness sciences, he units tropical affliction in a ancient framework that perspectives humans as interacting with, instead of performing inside, their overall setting. The complexity of cause-effect and agency-structure relationships is thereby highlighted. Readers from fields as varied as Spanish, American, and Philippine background, scientific anthropology, colonialism, diplomacy, Asian reviews, and ecology will reap the benefits of De Bevoise's insights into the interdynamics of historic procedures that attach people and their illnesses.
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Extra info for Agents of Apocalypse: Epidemic Disease in the Colonial Philippines
Slave raiding was even more important epidemiologically because of its capacity to terrorize the population and to disrupt normal living patterns. Power and prestige was based on control of slave labor, so attacks were continual and could come from any point on the compass. ”7 Longer-range trade linked the various disease environments of insular Southeast Asia and the mainland to some extent. The Borneo-Luzon-Fujian (Fukien) route was perhaps the most active, but traces of Filipinos and their ships survive in virtually every part of the region.
Their leaders typically petitioned both church and civil government for recognition, usually by notifying the nearest parish priest. As Christians, the settlers wanted his visits, and as defenseless pioneers, they needed his leadership and his access to weapons when Moro raiders approached. Since a resident priest conferred substantial prestige, the principalía of growing 26 C H A P T E R 1 splinter settlements continually pressured the authorities for recognition as the población of a new municipality.
As trading sailcraft coming from Borneo, the Celebes, or the Moluccas hopped from island to island, the various populations served as “boosters” for new cases to be carried on to the southern reaches of the archipelago. 8 Although initial Spanish contacts did not wreak wholesale epidemiological havoc throughout the archipelago as in the Americas, the “paciﬁcation” (to use Philip II’s euphemism) caused substantial death and suffering in many barangay. ” Each encomienda holder received the right to collect the annual tribute from a speciﬁed group of Filipinos.