Download America's Historic Stockyards: Livestock Hotels by J'Nell Pate PDF

By J'Nell Pate

Livestock markets for the sale and distribution of meat built as early because the days of colonial the United States. within the mid-nineteenth century, as westward growth elevated and railroads constructed, stockyard businesses shaped on the way to meet the call for of a becoming kingdom. opposite to markets, those businesses have been centrally geared up and controlled through a decide on few important companions. America’s old Stockyards: farm animals Hotels is an exam of such stockyards, from their early beginnings to their eventual decline.

Stockyards helped to set up a few of America’s maximum towns. Early at the scene have been stockyards in towns comparable to Cincinnati, another way referred to as “Porkopolis,” and meat stockyards and packing powerhouse Chicago, which was once thought of the #1 farm animals marketplace within the state. Markets quickly opened within the Midwest and finally elevated additional westward to California and Oregon.

Other smaller markets made huge contributions to the undefined. The cow cities of fortress worthy and Wichita by no means reached the prestige of Chicago yet did have huge cattle receipts. citadel worthy, for example, turned the biggest horse and mule industry in 1915, as international conflict I produced an elevated call for for those animals.

Meatpacking moguls often called the large Four—Phillip Armour, Gustavus fast, Nelson Morris, and Edward Cudahy—usually financed those turning out to be markets, managed the meatpacking company and, in flip, the stockyards businesses. even if the contributors replaced, this oligopoly remained intact for far of the period of the stockyards undefined. although, as railways gave method to highways, the markets declined and so too did those moguls. via the tip of the 20th century, virtually each significant marketplace closed, bringing an finish to the stockyard era.

J’Nell Pate’s exam of this period, the folks, and the markets themselves recounts an important a part of the background of America’s meat industry.

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Additional info for America's Historic Stockyards: Livestock Hotels

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Also, livestock owners established cooperative commission companies at the St. Joseph Stockyards in 1917, at the Kansas City yards in 1918, and at Wichita in 1925. Any member who would pay a small fee could sell animals through the cooperative. By 1929 cooperative commission companies existed at twenty-two of the nation’s central markets and handled over twelve million head of stock annually. 21 In addition, a number of smaller stockyards began operation during the 1930s and 1940s, and trucking joined railroading as a means to move cattle to local markets.

Robert J. ”4 To try to forestall regulation that might entail government ownership of stockyards, the packers requested a meeting with Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer where they proposed to clean up the industry from within. They signed a Packers’ Consent Decree in 1920 in which they agreed to dispose of their interests in public stockyards, railroads, market newspapers, and cold-storage warehouses. They further promised to relinquish their business in unrelated lines and to stop the use of the rail distribution system for anything other than meat products.

As a result, President Woodrow Wilson, in February 1917, requested that the Federal Trade Commission study the packing industry to determine if agreements in restraint of trade and other monopolistic practices had occurred. A study of major meat packers meant an investigation of stockyards as well, because the same ownership in most cases controlled both industries. ”14 In one chart the FTC report listed thirty-one major stockyards, showing percentages of ownership by the Big Five. The report indicated that the five large companies controlled over fifty percent of all but two of the yards mentioned, and the percentage of ownership usually ranged in the eighties or nineties.

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