Download An Environmental History of Medieval Europe by Richard Hoffmann PDF

By Richard Hoffmann

Because the first actual publication of its type, An Environmental historical past of Medieval Europe offers a hugely unique survey of medieval family members with the wildlife. enticing with the interdisciplinary company of environmental background, it examines the best way traditional forces affected humans, how humans replaced their atmosphere, and the way they thought of the realm round them. Exploring key topics in medieval background - together with the decline of Rome, non secular doctrine, and the lengthy fourteenth century - Hoffmann attracts clean conclusions approximately enduring questions relating to agrarian economies, tenurial rights, expertise and urbanization. Revealing the importance of the wildlife on occasions formerly regarded as in simple terms human, the booklet explores concerns together with the remedy of animals, sustainability, epidemic illness and weather swap, and by means of introducing medieval background within the context of social ecology, brings the flora and fauna into historiography as an agent and item of heritage itself.

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Chapter 7 addresses human possession and use of medieval nature through legal notions of ownership, usufruct, and regulatory rights and practices. Conflicting claims of seigneurs and subject communities with common rights frame a whole category of struggles where, however, the modern stereotypical ‘tragedy of the commons’ played little part. A new configuration of protagonists gained importance in later medieval centuries as princes and their officers, in other words the state, intervened in relations between user groups and all sorts of Thinking about Europeans in the natural world 19 resources.

This chapter aims to set out essential features of those antecedent processes and conditions. natural dynamics in holocene europe For millennia before the Middle Ages dynamic natural forces had continually changed and shaped the face of western Eurasia. As elsewhere in the northern hemisphere, successive Pleistocene readvances of glacial ice carved European landscapes even far south of the glacial front. The latest retreat of the ice caps, which set in about fourteen thousand years ago (henceforth abbreviated as 14kya), had comparable wide-ranging effects.

Though the vast majority of medieval Europeans knew of the sea only by hearsay, that relative proximity influenced how they lived in even their inland landscapes. 1). On its southern margin the Mediterranean basin comprises the sea and a narrow, mountainous coastal strip. 1 Europe’s land forms and principal geographic regions Natural dynamics in Holocene Europe 25 contains relatively few and small areas of level ground. Bedrock lies close to the soil surface in much of its abrupt relief. Young and highly folded mountains of the Alpine system bound the entire northern shore of the Mediterranean, extending from the Pyrenees to the Caucasus with only a few major breaks to ease regular or large-scale passage.

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