Download Animal Breeding, Welfare and Society by Jacky Turner PDF

By Jacky Turner

The choice of whilst, how, how frequently and with whom an animal breeds is relocating speedily clear of evolutionary pressures and in the direction of human reasons: those comprise the breeding of round 50 billion mammals and birds for foodstuff construction every year, the breeding of pedigree canine and cats, racing canines and horses, specialized laboratory animal lines and using reproductive technological know-how to preserve endangered species or breeds and to restrict undesirable populations of pests and non-native species. however the ethics and sustainability of this takeover of animals' reproductive lives were insufficiently tested via both pros or the general public. This ebook discusses the tools, the motivations and the implications of human intervention in animal breeding by way of animal health and wellbeing, behaviour and future health. It explores the place we're now and the alternatives forward, and appears to a destiny the place now we have extra recognize for animals as sentient beings and the place lets loosen the reins of reproductive keep an eye on.

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Handling and invasive procedures such as injections or blood collection can cause discomfort, pain or fear. Most of the procedures involved in breeding are not carried out for the benefit of the animals concerned (see Chapter 2). Much of the management of animal breeding, with the aim of maximizing output, fails to respect the natural behaviour of animals and their social and emotional bonds. Early weaning and maternal deprivation are routine in farm animal breeding. Artificial breeding technology (artificial insemination and embryo transfer) deny animals their natural sexual behaviour (see Chapter 4).

Animals with a low market value are typically treated with less consideration for their welfare. Sex-sorting of sperm or embryos similarly has the potential to reduce the number of unwanted and low-value animals that are born. Unwanted animals may be killed at birth or treated with less consideration for their welfare because of their low market value (Chapter 8). Artificial insemination and embryo transfer have the potential to avoid the stress and the risk of disease transmission caused by transporting live animals for breeding purposes.

An artificial aid to increase milk production is the synthetic growth hormone bovine somatotrophin (bST), which can be injected into dairy cows every two weeks. 40 Genetic change in dairy cows has also changed the way they are fed and housed. Cows traditionally produced milk from grazing on pasture in the summer and from conserved grass in the winter, but for ‘high genetic merit’ cows this is no longer the case. With bodies designed for very high milk production, they can no longer get enough nutrition from grass and need additional sources of energy and protein such as cereals and soya (or, in the 1980s, the ground-up meat and bones of other cows).

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